The history of this plant is as old as mankind. The origin of the crop appears to be in the Mediterranean, as this is the most favorable climate for their crop. The word "opium" derives from Greek meaning "juice". The Arabs used to treat dysentery and other illnesses, and some of the applications which are then gave this plant remain fully valid today.
In the East its use became popular mainly because much smoke and its effects gave rise to a series of psychological manifestations, mainly characterized by a state of bewilderment and stupor, hence the term poppy.
The poppy flowers from May. Proceed to the harvest as the seeds are still immature. Thus, by making small incisions in the capsule, sprouts a milky juice or latex, in contact with air, turns brown. This is the raw opium latex, which becomes cooked and smoke opium in special pipes or cook in water for a specified time, without moving from 80 grados CelsiusC.
The latex contains many alkaloids, of which the principal is morphine, a very potent analgesic but highly toxic when used for nonmedical purposes. Other alkaloids are also produced naturally include codeine, thebaine, papaverine and noscapine narcotine. Besides the natural alkaloids, and thanks to pharmaceutical technology, has managed to secure a host of semisynthetic derivatives, whose beneficial effects are increasing in tandem with minor side effects. As a curiosity, we note that today is available morphine derivatives up to a thousand times more powerful in terms of its analgesic properties are concerned.
As mentioned above, the use of morphine is very restricted. Thus, for the supply through the pharmacy, you must submit a drug card, plus many other roles. Reserves its exclusive use in cases of patients with severe pain to those who have applied previously are alternative treatments without success. Codeine, in contrast, is widely distributed and there is no influenza formulation not containing it. Furthermore, also used as a mild pain reliever.
Morphine. Exclusively medical use. There are some slow-release oral tablets. Also injection.
Heroin. Totally banned its use. No medical benefit. Highly toxic.
Codeine. In the form of syrups, tablets, capsules, etc.. Alone or in combination with other substances in formulations influenza.
Naltrexone. In syrup or tablets used in treating heroin addiction under close medical supervision.
Loperaminda and difaroxilato. In tablets as antidiarrheal.
HABITAT: Mediterranean Basin
PART USED: The fruit
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